College dating violence prevention
In collaboration with Andrew Grogan-Kaylor at the University of Michigan, Gershoff analyzed 36 studies of spanking and found that parents who said they had spanked their children were three times more likely to say their children had aggressive behavior in the following years.Many other undesirable outcomes were associated with spanking, including children acting out and having poor relationships with their parents, as well as being victims of physical abuse later in life."Research is strongest for the use of spanking between the ages of 2 and 6, when milder types of correction have failed."Larzelere co-authored a position paper on spanking research for the the American College of Pediatricians, a small group of physicians who have a conservative stance on many parenting matters.Some of its position papers state, for example, that homosexual parenting is harmful to children, gender dysphoria in children will be outgrown by adolescence and cohabitation before marriage will negatively impact any children born before, during or after cohabitation. Den Trumbull, concluded that "it's okay for parents to spank," but with some conditions: Parents should ensure children know it's "motivated by love and concern for their well-being" and be certain "they do not use disciplinary spanking too severely." Spanking should always be used in a manner that reduces the need to use it in the future, the paper said."So they continue the behavior with their children."Temple and Sege argue that attitude is shortsighted and doesn't take into account two decades of research showing no benefit from corporal punishment."There's zero evidence that it enhances children's development, and there is a whole bunch of evidence that it has negative outcomes," Temple said. Our goal is to turn out healthier and happier than previous generations."Sege agreed: "We didn't have seat belts for children when I was growing up, either. The effects of corporal punishment are quite well established to be poor."'It's okay to spank'Some remain unconvinced of the harms of spanking, including a small group of physicians and researchers who continue to argue that it is beneficial, or at least not bad for kids.
"Corporal punishment confuses the boundaries between love and violence for children while they are learning how to treat others."Boston University Associate Professor Emily Rothman, an expert in dating and partner violence, agreed: "The experience of having someone direct aggression to you increases the likelihood that you'll fall back on aggression when in a flight or fight moment.The agency says another 56 countries are working to pass similar laws.However, it's legal in the United States for parents to physically punish their children at home, and most think that's exactly as it should be.Getting spanked just that one time may not affect a child's relationship with their parents, but it may still be remembered and resented, Holden added.Gershoff agrees that the odd spanking would probably not have long-term effects but asks "why do it at all? There is some evidence that the support for spanking in the United States is slowly fading.
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During their investigations, Gershoff and Grogan-Kaylor also looked for evidence that supported people in the United States -- and researchers -- who think spanking is good for kids.